Login | Contact Us

Email us - info@tutorskingdom.com
Contact Number - 1-877-224-8273

Chat Now
Softening of Water

 

The hardness of the temporary and the permanent hardness is removed through many methods. This process of converting hard water to soft water is called softening of water. The technique for removing temporary hardness is as follows:

 (i) Boiling – During boiling, the soluble Mg(HCO3)2 is converted into insoluble Mg(OH)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 is changed to insoluble CaCO3.

     Mg (HCO3)2                                 Mg (OH)­2 + 2CO2

(ii) Clark’s method – In this method calculated amount of lime is added to hard water. It precipitates out calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide which can be filtered off.

     Ca (HCO3)2 + Ca (OH)2                       2CaCO3 + 2H2O

     Mg (HCO3)2 + 2Ca (OH)2                       2CaCO3 + Mg (OH)2 + 2H2O

The technique for removing permanent hardness is:

(i) By washing soda method – Washing soda reacts with soluble calcium and magnesium chlorides and sulphates in hard water to form insoluble carbonates.

     MCl2 + Na2CO3                            MCO3 + 2NaCl

     MSO4 + Na2CO3                           MCO3 + Na2SO4 (M = Mg, Ca)

(ii) Calgon’s method – Sodiumhexametaphosphate (Na6P6O18), commercially called calgon, when added to hard water, the following reaction takes place:

     Na6P6O18                              2Na+ + Na4P6O182-

     M2+ + Na4P6O182-                              [Na2MP6O18]2- + 2Na+

The complex anion keeps the Mg2+ and Ca2+. 

Tutors Kingdom provides the assignment and homework help related to Softening of water round the clock by our tutors which have specialization in the field of chemistry. The Hydrogen is the field in chemistry which is mostly a weak part of many students. The tutors at Tutors Kingdom helps student with difficulties that are faced in the problems of Softening of water.  The assignment help or the homework help at Tutors Kingdom is not only cost effective but it also promises to resolve your problem within the due time, may it be in hours or in few days. You can submit the homework and all the doubts will get cleared. The Tutors Kingdom also provides exam preparation help for SAT, IGCSE, Round Square, GCSE, AP, and many more. The chemistry help is provided in all the subjects discussed here and many more. The online tutoring is also available in chemistry 24*7 at affordable price.

 



Comments are closed.


Sub Category