Amoeba are single cell (unicellular) organisms that move in search of food by extending cytoplasm outward to form pseudopodia (false feet). They have thin cell membranes, a semirigid layer of ectoplasm, a granular, jellylike endoplasm, and an oval-shaped nucleus. A reaction to chemicals in their food (smaller organisms) cause the amoeba to form pairs of pseudopodia which wrap around the organism being eaten, and a cavity is formed. A digestive enzyme in the cavity breaks down the organism into substances that are absorbed into the cytoplasm for nourishment. A mature amoeba reproduce by splitting into two equal parts, each of which split into two more equal parts when they have matured.
There is no sexual reproduction occurs in amoeba. They simply divide by mitotic cell division so the daughter amoebic cells are identical to the parental cell with idenctical genotypic and phenotypic properties. Amoeba is the most popular protozoan creature. It is regarded as one of the lowest form of animals, as its body consists of mere speck of protoplasm. The body resembles a tiny blob of jelly, and yet it contains all the equipment required by the organism to perform all the vital functions of life, such moment , nutrition, respiration, reproduction, etc. it serves as an interesting and suetable material for the laboratory studies by the students because it is a large protozoan and easy to obtain. Amoeba belongs to the superclass sarcodina. It moves and feets with the help of false feet or pseudopodia, formed as a result of the streaming flow of cytoplasm. They are several species of amoeba, both free living and parasitic, but that which is commonly studied is amoeba proteus. This large fresh water species of amoeba is also a useful experimental animal.
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